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# Valuation & Growth Rate Indicators

1. P / E ratio A price-to-earnings ratio is used to measure the relationship between a company's market value and a year's earnings. P / E ratio depends on four factors: macro environment, industry environment, company situation and market sentiment. Generally speaking, companies in the same industry, because the macro environment and the industry environment are the same, the market mood is roughly the same, so the price-earnings ratio is generally closer. Due to the different business nature and development prospect of different industries, the average price-earnings ratio varies greatly among different industries.

2. Market account rateThe market value ratio is the share price divided by the book value ratio per share, and the market value ratio is market value / book value. Because the book value reflects the historical cost, the market account ratio is the comparison of the investment market value of the company relative to the cost. Less than 1 indicates that the company has not effectively created the value due to shareholders.

3. Marketing rate Marketing rate (Price-to-sales,PS), PS= total market value / main business income or PS= share price / sales per share. The lower the marketing rate, the greater the current investment value of the company's shares.

4. Share price to cash flow ratio Stock price cash flow ratio is a common financial indicator, which is used to measure the market expectations for the future financial integrity of the company. The formula is: share cash flow ratio = share price / cash flow per share (cash inflow minus cash outflow for the current period)

5. Dividend yield The dividend yield (Dividend Yield Ratio), is the ratio of the total dividend to the market price of the year. The annual dividend, expressed as a percentage of the final selling price of the stock, is a simplified form of return on investment. Dividend yield is the ratio between dividend and stock price.

6. Forecast of long-term profit growthThe long-term profit growth forecast of the portfolio is the weighted average of the long-term profit growth forecast of each stock in the portfolio. The higher the forecast of long-term profit growth, the better the profit growth expectation of the representative enterprise.

7. Sales growth The sales growth of the portfolio is the weighted average of the sales growth of each stock in the portfolio. The higher the sales growth figure, the faster the sales growth of the representative enterprise.

8. Cash flow growth The cash flow growth of the portfolio is the weighted average of the cash flow growth of each stock in the portfolio. The higher the cash flow growth figure, the better the financial position of the representative enterprise.

9. Book value growth The book value increase of the portfolio is the weighted average of the book value increase of each stock in the portfolio. The higher the book value growth figure, the better the solvency of the representative enterprise.